Magnetic surveying of a well’s path led to the development of non-magnetic drill collars inside the drill string. Its very low corrosion rates, non-magnetic properties, and high strength made alloy K500 perfect for the equipment used to drill for oil.
Drill collars, along with other part of the drill string, are used with responsive meters that can detect even minuscule changes in drilling. “In the end, it can be said that the drilling parts make use of seismology by the creation of shock waves which can pass through hidden rock layers and making sense of the series of waves which are reflected to the surface of the earth.”
“What drilling equipment does is that it makes the shock waves travel to the heart of the earth and these are reflected back to the surface by the different layers of rock through which they pass. The shock waves are reflected and picked up by the audio sensitive vibration detectors or microphones: in the land, the drilling parts consist of seismometers, while those on the water are done by the drilling hydrophones. Seismologists interpret the readings for signs of gas or petroleum traps and oil.” (flowtechenergy.com)
Once the extraction process begins, it is generally divided into three stages: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary. The primary stage constitutes up to 15% of what the well will produce. The Secondary stage happens when the pressure decreases and can’t naturally force the oil out. Usually injecting something into the well increases pressure and forces more oil out. This is also the stage where pumps are used.
In the Tertiary stage, heat, chemicals, bacteria and even steam are used to thin the oil to make further extraction possible. This stage makes up another 5-15% of the oil extracted from the well. After this, when the energy that can be gained by continuing to extract is less than the energy put into continuing the effort, the process ends. Then it’s off to the next well.
HPS (horizontal pump systems) equipped with K500 or 718 pump shafts are frequently used in the injection and or dewatering process. Double Eagle Alloys is the leading distributor of nickel based pump shafting materials and we proudly count the largest pump manufacturers in the world among our customers.
ESP’s (electric submersible pumps) have become the leading pump variety for extraction of fluids once wells have lost pressure. High strength K500 and 718 are the alloys of choice for the shafting in these pumps. Double Eagle Alloys distributes a broad range of specialty metals; nickel based PSQ is one of DEA’s core competencies.